The following references informed the content of Culturally Connected:

Culture & Cultural Humility

Culture & Cultural Humility

Alameda County Public Health Department. (n.d.). Module II: Cultural Competency and Cultural Humility. Public Health 101 Dialogue Series.  Retrieved from:

Alberta Health Services. (2009). Enhancing Cultural Competency: A Resource Kit for Health Care Professionals. Retrieved from:

Anderson, J., Perry, J., Blue, C., Browne, A., Henderson, A., Khan, K.B., Smye, V. (2003). Riding cultural safety within the postcolonial and postnational feminist project: toward new epistemologies of healing.  [Research Support, Non-U.S. Government]. ANS Adv Nurs Sci, 26(3), 196-214.

Anderson, L.M., Scrimshaw, S.C. Fullilove, M.T., Fielding, J.E. and Normand, J. (2003).  Culturally competent healthcare systems.  A systematic review. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Government Review].  Am J Prev Med, 24(3 Suppl), 68-79.

Berlin, E. & Fowkes, W.A. (1983). A teaching framework for cross-cultural health care. Western Journal of Medicine, 139:934–938. Available from:

California Health Advocates. (2007). Are You Practicing Cultural Humility? – The Key to Success in Cultural Competence. Sacramento, CA. Retrieved from:

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003). Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Health Care. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 8(1), Manuscript 2. Also available at:

The Canadian Association of Perinatal and Women’s Health Nurses. (2017). CAPWHN Position Statement on Cultural Safety/Humility.  Retrieved from:

Chávez, V. (2012). Cultural Humility: People, Principles and Practice.  Documentary Video. Available at:

College of Nurses of Ontario. (2009). Culturally Sensitive Care Practice Guidelines. Retrieved from:

Cross, T.L., Bazron, B. J., Dennis, K.W., & Isaacs, M.R. (1988). Towards a culturally competent system of care:  A monograph on effective services for minority children who are severely emotionally disturbed. Washington, DC:  CASSP Technical Assistance Center.

Davies, H. T. O., Nutley, S. M., Mannion, R. (2000). Organisational culture and quality of health care. BMJ Quality & Safety, 9, 111-119. Retrieved from

DeLisser, L.H.H., Ed. (2009). Achieving Cultural Competency: A Case-Based Approach to Training Health Professionals.  Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Diversity Leadership Council. (n.d.) Diversity Wheel. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University & Medicine. Accessed at:

Downing, R., and Kowal, E. (2011).  A postcolonial analysis of Indigenous cultural awareness training for health workers.  Health Sociology Review, 20(1), 5-15.

Dutta, M.J. (2007).  Communicating about culture and health: Theorizing culture-centered and cultural sensitivity approaches.  Communication Theory, 17(3), 304-328.

Fang, Mei Lan. (2013). Cultural competence continuum: Evolution, theory and practice.  BC Centre of Excellence for Women's Health.

First Nations Health Authority. (2016). #itstartswithme Creating a Climate for Change. Cultural Safety and Humility in Health Services Delivery for First Nations and Aboriginal Peoples in British Columbia Retrieved from:

Foronda, C., Baptiste, D.L., Reinholdt, M.M., & Ousman, K. (2016). Cultural humility: A concept analysis. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3), 210-7. Retrieved from:

Healthcare Chaplaincy. (2009). Cultural & Spiritual Sensitivity. A Learning Module for Health Care Professionals. New York, NY: HealthCare Chaplaincy. Retrieved from:

Howard, T.C. (2012).  Culturally Responsive Pedagogy.  Los Angeles, CA: Center X, Graduate School of Education and Information of UCLA.

Hunt, L. (2001).  Beyond cultural competence. The Park Ridge Centre for Health, Faith, and Ethics Bulletin, 24. Also available electronically:

Isaacs, M. & Benjamin, M. (1991). Towards a culturally competent system of care, volume II, programs which utilize culturally competent principles. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.

Kandula, N. (2013). The patient explanatory model. The Health Care Blog. Retrieved from

Kirmayer, L.J. (2012). Rethinking cultural competence. Transcultural Psychiatry, 49(2), 149-164. Retrieved from:

Kirmayer, L.J.,Narasiah, L., Munoz, M., Rashid, M., Ryder, A.G., Guzder, J., Hassan, G., Rousseau, C., and Pottie, L. (2011). Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: General approach in primacy care. CMAJ Review. Retrieved from

Kleinman, A., Eisenberg, L., & Good, B. (1978). Culture, illness, and care: clinical lessons from anthropological and cross-cultural research. Ann Intern Med;(88) 251–88.

Margalit, R. et al. (2013). Working in a Cross Cultural Context Considering Culture and Health Behavior. University of Nebraska Medical Center: Global Health Education Consortium. Retrieved from:

The National Alliance on Mental Illness and University of Illinois at Chicago. (2010). Cultural Competency in Mental Health Peer-run Programs and Self-help Groups: A Tool to Assess and Enhance your Services. NAMI Star Center and the University of Illinois at Chicago, National Research and Training Center. Retrieved from:

National Center for Cultural Competence. (2015). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University. Accessed at:

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2005). Cultural Competency in Health: A guide for policy, partnerships and participation. Australian Government. Retrieved from:

Nova Scotia Department of Health. (2005). A Cultural Competence Guide for Primary Health Care Professionals in Nova Scotia. Halifax, N.S. Retrieved from:

Nova Scotia Department of Health. (2006). Messages for all voices: Integrating Cultural Competence and Health Literacy in Health Materials, Forms and Signage. Retrieved from

Pauly, B., McCall, J., Browne, A. J., Parker, J., Mollison, A. (2015). Toward Cultural Safety: Nurse and Patient Perceptions of Illicit Substance Use in a Hospitalized Setting. Advances in Nursing Science, 38(2) 121–135.

Pauly, B., McCall, J., Parker, J., McLaren, C., Browne, A. J., Mollison, A. (2013). Creating Culturally Safe Care in Hospital Settings for People who use(d) Illicit Drugs. Centre for Addictions Research of BC. Victoria, British Columbia. Retrieved from:

Pottie, Kevin and al et . (2011). Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees. CMAJ, 183(12). Retrieved from

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). SAMHSA’s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4884. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Teal, C. R. and Street, R.L. (2009). Critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter: a review and model. Social Science and Medicine, 68(3) 533-43. Retrieved from

Tervalon, M. (2011). Culture, Humility, Leadership. Retrieved from:

Tervalon, M. and Murray-Garcia, J. (1998).  Cultural humility versus cultural competency: a critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education. [Editorial Research Support, Non-U.S. Government P.H.S. Review].  J Health Care Poor Underserved, 9(2) 117-125.

Training Management Corporation. (2014). Cultural Orientations Approach: Six Levels of Culture. Retrieved from

United States Administration on Aging. (2010). A Toolkit for Serving Diverse Communities. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in Health and Health Care. Office of Minority Health: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:

Wallen, J. (1968). The Interpersonal Gap.  In Readings in communication skills. (2001). Maple Valley, WA: School for Innovative Leadership.

Waters, A. & Asbill, L. (2013). Reflections on Cultural Humility. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from:

Wepa, D., Ed. (2005). Cultural Safety in Aotearoa New Zealand. Pearson Education New Zealand.

Yeager, K. A., & Bauer-Wu, S. (2013). Cultural humility: Essential foundation for clinical researchers. Applied Nursing Research : ANR, 26(4). Retrieved from:

Health Literacy

Health Literacy

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2015) Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit, 2nd Edition. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from

American Medical Association. (2007). Incorporating Universal Communication Principles. Adapted from:  Reducing the Risk by Designing a Safer, Shame-Free Health Care Environment.  

Canadian Public Health Association. (2014). Examples of Health Literacy in Practice.  Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved from

Canadian Public Health Association. (2002). Good Medicine for Seniors: Guidelines for Plain Language and Good Design in Prescription Medication. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved from

The Centre for Literacy. (2009). The Calgary Charter on Health Literacy: Rationale and core principles for the development of health literacy curricula. Retrieved from

Hasnain-Wynia, R. & Wolf, M.S. (2010). Promoting health care equity: Is health literacy a missing link? Health Services Research, 45(5), 897-903. Retrieved from:

Health Industry Collaboration Effort. (2010). Better Communication, Better Care: Provider Tools to Care for Diverse Populations. Retrieved from:

The Joint Commission. (2007). “What did the Doctor Say?:” Improving Health Literacy to Protect Patient Safety. Oakbrook Terrace, IL. Retrieved from:

Kickbusch, I., Wait, S., & Maag, D. (2006). Navigating Health: The Role of Health Literacy. Retrieved from:

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Health communication with immigrants, refugees, and migrant workers: Proceedings of a workshop—in brief. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from:

The NWT Literacy Council. (2015). Plain language Audit Tool. Retrieved from

The Plain Language Action and Information Network. (2004).

Plain Language Association International. (2015).

Provincial Health Services Authority. (2011). Towards Reducing Health Inequities: A Health System Approach to Chronic Disease Prevention. A Discussion Paper. Vancouver, BC: Population & Public Health, Provincial Health Services Authority. Retrieved from

Rajah, R., Hassali, M.A.A., Jou, L.C., & Murugiah, M.K. (2017). The perspective of healthcare providers and patients on health literacy: a systematic review of the quantitative and qualitative studies. Perspectives in Public Health, 1-11. Retrieved from:

Rootman, I. & Gordon-El-Bihbety, D. (2008) A Vision for a Health Literate Canada: Report of the Expert Panel on Health Literacy.  Canadian Public Health Association.  Ottawa, Ontario.  Also available at:

Scottish Government. (2014). Making it easy: A health literacy action plan for Scotland. Retrieved from

Singleton, K. & Krause, E. (2009). Understanding cultural and linguistic barriers to health literacy. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(3), Manuscript 4


Ask Me 3

Michalopoulou, G., Falzarano, P., Arfken, C. and Rosenberg, D. (2010). Implementing the ASK ME 3™ to improve African American Patient Satisfaction and Perceptions of Physician Cultural Competency. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(2) 62-68.

National Patient Safety Foundation. (2015). Ask Me 3. Retrieved from



UnityPoint Health. (2015). Always Use Teach-back! Training Toolkit. Retrieved from:



Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2017). The SHARE Approach. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from:

Working with interpreters

Working with interpreters

The Provincial Language Service. (2015). Interpreting. The Provincial Health Services Authority. Retrieved from: